Mirjam Kuehne

Mirjam Kuehne

Joined on September 23, 2010
Total Post Views: 183,801

About

Mirjam K├╝hne returned to the RIPE NCC in 2009 to set up RIPE Labs, using her wide professional network and technical insight to engage the Internet community to share ideas and best practice on issues impacting on the Internet infrastructure.

Prior to joining the RIPE NCC, Mirjam worked at ISOC as Senior Program Manager. She led projects related to technology and public policy, bridging the gap between the technical community and non-technical audiences, including government organisations. She was also responsible for ISOC's Education Pillar, which involved the development of technical workshops in developing countries. Additionally, she was in charge of establishing relationships with partner organisations, e.g. ICANN, the RIRs, the IETF and NSRC.

Mirjam's career highlights also include the inception of the IETF Journal, which she edited for 5 years.

Prior to this, Mirjam worked at the RIPE NCC's senior management, being responsible for external relations and representing the organisation on an international level.

Mirjam has a Master's Degree in Computer Science from the Technical University, Berlin, Germany.

Featured Blogs

One Year Later: Who's Doing What With IPv6?

One year on from the World IPv6 Launch in June 2012, we wanted to see how much progress has been made towards the goal of global IPv6 deployment. Both APNIC and Google are carrying out measurements at the end user level, which show that around 1.29% (APNIC) and 1.48% (Google) of end users are capable of accessing the IPv6 Internet. Measurements taken from this time last year show 0.49% (APNIC) and 0.72% (Google), which means the amount of IPv6-enabled end users has more than doubled in the past 12 months. more»

Networks Announcing IPv6 Over Time: A Short Update

We regularly check the status of IPv6 deployment in the RIPE NCC service region, and in other service regions as well. One way to measure IPv6 deployment is to look at the percentage of networks announcing IPv6 prefixes and follow the developments over time. The RIPE NCC's IPv6-ASN graph shows the percentage of networks that announce one or more IPv6 prefixes in the global routing system. Having an IPv6 prefix visible in the global routing system is a required step for a network to actually start exchanging IPv6 traffic with other networks. more»

1,000th /22 Allocated from Last /8

On 14 September 2012, the RIPE NCC began allocating IPv4 address space from the last /8 we received from the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Nobody was entirely sure what would happen when we reached this point. Would there be a "run on the bank" for this final block of addresses? more»

A Look at How the Internet Routes Around Damage: Measuring Global Effects of Storm Sandy

Hurricane Sandy caused major damage in both the Caribbean and the North-Eastern part of the USA. In an earlier article (RIPE Atlas - Superstorm Sandy) we showed data on 15 RIPE Atlas probes that are located in or near the affected areas in the USA. Most of these locations now appear to be back to normal round trip times to targets we monitor. But the effects of Hurricane Sandy were felt beyond the immediately affected area. more»

New LIRs and Their IPv6 RIPEness

The RIPE NCC's membership grew steadily over the course of 2012. In Q3, the RIPE NCC received 417 requests to become a Local Internet Registry (LIR); the highest number we have seen so far. This surge in membership growth exceeds the previous record set 12 years ago during the dotcom bubble in 2000. One reason for the surge is probably the anticipation of the last /8 of IPv4 addresses. more»

RIPE NCC is Reaching the Last /8 of IPv4

In an earlier article, IPv4 - Business As Usual, we pointed out that the RIPE NCC will reach the last /8 of IPv4 address space (16,777,216 addresses) sometime later this year. On Friday, 14 September 2012 we reached this important milestone; we allocated the last IPv4 addresses from the unallocated pool. From now on, the RIPE NCC can only distribute IPv6 addresses and a one-time /22 IPv4 allocation from the last /8 to those Local Internet Registries (LIRs) that meet the requirements. more»

Update on AS Path Lengths Over Time - How Interconnected is the Internet?

With the number of ASes connected to the Internet constantly increasing, one could expect that the length of the AS paths would also increase as the network as a whole gets wider. However, this doesn't seem to be the case. Also, with IPv6 being more widely deployed, how does the interconnectedness of the IPv6 portion of the Internet compare to IPv4? more»

Update on Assigning 32-bit ASNs

As mentioned in Assigning 32-bit ASNs published one year ago, 16-bit Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs) are becoming a scarce resource just like 32-bit IP addresses. In 2007, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) addressed this scarcity by developing a new format: 32-bit AS Numbers (RFC 4893), which increased the supply of ASNs to four billion. more»

Measuring World IPv6 Launch: Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 Performance

Following on from last year's measurements after World IPv6 Day, the RIPE NCC carried out active measurements on World IPv6 Launch on 6 June 2012. These measurements included latency measurements both on IPv4 and IPv6 from our vantage points to selected hostnames of World IPv6 Launch participants and other dual-stacked parties. We used these measurements to determine the performance of IPv4 versus IPv6 connections. more»

Measurement Results from World IPv6 Launch

As announced on RIPE Labs we monitored the behaviour of a number of networks that participated in the World IPv6 Launch on 6 June 2012. For that, we looked at the full list of participating organisations as shown on the ISOC website and chose 50 websites from that list. We looked at 'interesting' sites and at geographic distribution. We also tried to find a good mix of networks that had IPv6 switched on already and those that didn't have IPv6 deployed at the time they registered on the ISOC web site. more»

Measuring IPv6 at the Network and the Customer Level

George Michaelson, APNIC's Senior Research and Development Scientist recently visited the RIPE NCC to collaborate on various research projects with his RIR colleagues. IPv6 measurements were one of the topics we looked at. Recent IPv6 statistics from the RIPE NCC show an accelerated uptake of IPv6 in Norway, both in terms of the number of allocated prefixes, and visible announcements in the routing system. more»

Update on IPv6 Address Distribution in the RIPE NCC Service Region

At the recent RIPE Meeting we presented some IPv6 address distribution statistics that we would like to share with a wider audience. In the article below, you can find recent statistics on IPv6 allocations and assignments. The first image shows the number of IPv6 allocations the RIPE NCC made to LIRs in each quarter, starting in 2008... Each year is depicted in a different colour, the last one showing the number of allocations made in Q3 2012. more»

What Ever Happened to the Closed Local Internet Registries?

Since the establishment of the RIPE NCC, 5,000 Local Internet Registries (LIRs) have closed. We wanted to find out why. Many of them were probably victims of the burst of the dotcom bubble. But how many? And which countries were mostly affected? How many closures were the results of mergers? We've got answers. more»

From 80 to 8,000 - The Growth of the RIPE NCC Membership

The RIPE NCC is 20 years old and it now has over 8,000 members. In this article we are looking at the growth curve and the composition of the membership: what industry do RIPE NCC members come from today. The RIPE NCC became the first Regional Internet Registry in September 1992 (six months after it was set up as the secretariat for the European operators community, RIPE). more»

Growth in IPv6-Capable DNS Infrastructure

In our last post on CircleID we showed encouraging growth in the number of IPv6-enabled networks. But announcing an IPv6 prefix is only one of the first steps a network operator should take when deploying IPv6. For a full IPv6 deployment, IPv6 needs to be enabled on network infrastructure and made available to end users. One key piece of infrastructure for which we can measure IPv6 capabilities are DNS resolvers. more»

Networks Announcing IPv6 - One Year Later

About a year ago, we shared some graphs that showed the percentage of IPv6 enabled networks over time. More precisely, it showed the percentage of Autonomous Systems (ASes) that announced one or more IPv6 prefixes in the global routing table. The results for the five Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) were described in an earlier CircleID post... We looked at the progress since then. more»

Data Quality in the RIPE NCC Service Region

In an earlier article on CircleID, Registry Data Quality Assessment, we discussed the importance of high quality and accurate IP registry data. At that time, we focused mainly on the accuracy of legacy address space: IP addresses that were given out prior to the existence of the RIPE NCC and that are not part of the current registry system. In this article, we want to present the efforts to keep the address space that is the responsibility of the RIPE NCC up to date and well maintained. more»

IP Address Space Covered by Certificates

Since the RIPE NCC launched its Resource Certification service, there is a steady increase in the number of prefixes covered by certificates. The Resource Certification (RPKI) service was launched at the beginning of 2011. The system enables network operators to perform Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) origin validation, which means that they can securely verify if a BGP route announcement has been authorised by the legitimate holder of the address block. more»

IPv6 Deployment from a Different Perspective

Often when looking at IPv6 deployment statistics, the size of the organisation or the network is not taken into account. In this article, we look at IPv6 deployment of Local Internet Registries (LIRs) per country in correlation to the size of the LIR. When looking at IPv6 deployment at the LIR level, we can look at the following two metrics... more»

IPv6 RIPEness: More Smaller and Younger Organizations Deploying IPv6

The number of RIPE NCC members [also referred to as Local Internet Registries (LIRs)] that have an IPv6 allocation continues to grow -- in absolute terms as well as in percentages. 46% of all RIPE NCC members have one or more IPv6 RIPEness stars. ... Do new members pick up IPv6? Are older members with more experience, well-established businesses and customer base dominating IPv6 RIPEness scores? And what about the size of a member? Are small and large members adopting IPv6 in equal proportions? In this article we look into answering these questions. more»

A Look at the Growth of the Internet Routing System

Geoff Huston, APNIC's Chief Scientist, is visiting the RIPE NCC this week to spend time with his fellow Regional Internet Registries (RIR) colleagues and to strengthen collaboration on shared projects. We've used this opportunity to invite him to produce the 'Interesting Graph of the Week'. Geoff has been monitoring the global routing system for many years. Here are his most recent observations. more»

Registry Data Quality Assessment

Accurate registration data is essential for the global registry system. To ensure that the RIPE Registry's data is correct, up-to-date and accurate, the RIPE NCC regularly checks the Registry data to fix inconsistencies and outdated information. We recently evaluated and analysed all IP address ranges registered in the RIPE Database and were pleased to find that 96.09% of those records are considered accurate. more»

Authentication Methods Used in the RIPE Database

Objects in the RIPE Database can only be modified by those authorised to do so. For instance, an object representing a certain range of IP addresses assigned to an organisation by the RIPE NCC or a Local Internet Registry (LIR) can be modified by the organisation holding that address space. Each database object contains one or more attributes referencing the maintainer(s) of that object. In a maintainer (MNTNER) object, credentials are listed for those who are authorised to modify any object referencing that MNTNER object. more»

Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 Performance

The active measurements the RIPE NCC carried out on World IPv6 Day on 8 June 2011 included ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) and ICMP6 (ICMP for IPv6) measurements from our vantage points to selected hostnames of World IPv6 Day participants and other dual-stacked parties. We used these measurements to determine the performance of IPv4 versus IPv6 connections. more»

Assigning 32-bit ASNs

With 16-bit Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs), 65,536 unique numbers are possible. Just like 32-bit IP addresses, these 16-bit ASNs are becoming a scarce resource. Therefore, in 2007 the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) developed a new format, 32-bit ASNs (RFC 4893), which increases the supply of ASNs to four billion. more»

IPv6 Enabled Networks Before and After World IPv6 Day

In our last post on CircleID, Measuring World IPv6 Day - First Impressions, we showed exactly when World IPv6 Day participants switched on IPv6 on their networks (by way of announcing DNS AAAA records). Now, a few weeks after World IPv6 Day, it's interesting to see what the longer-term effects have been. more»

How Many IPv4 Addresses Does the RIPE NCC Have Left?

Since IANA ran out of IPv4 addresses, people are increasingly aware of how short the remaining lifetime of IPv4 is. With World IPv6 Day taking place this week, the issue has come into even sharper focus. Since March 2011, the RIPE NCC has been publishing the size of its pool of available IPv4 addresses. All five Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) regularly publish the status of their IPv4 address pools. In the image below, you can see how the number of IPv4 addresses in the RIPE NCC pool changes over time. more»

RIPE NCC Members Secure their Resources Using Certification

Resource certification verifies that an Internet number resource (IP address space or autnonomous system number) has legitimately been allocated by a Regional Internet Registry. It will also benefit every network operator and Internet user in the world by helping to ensure long-term routing stability. more»

IPv6 Address Allocations

Last year, we presented statistics on the number of RIPE NCC members and the resources distributed to them. Now, one year later, we revisit the topic and look at how things evolved in 2010. We were particularly interested to see how the number of IPv6 allocations increased over time. more»

Caidagram: Visualising Geographically Annotated Internet Measurements

With measurement networks rapidly evolving up to hundreds of nodes, it becomes more and more challenging to extract useful visualisations from tons of collected data. At the same time, geographical information related to Internet measurements (either known or inferred with state-of-the-art techniques) can be exploited to build tools based on geography as a common knowledge base. We wanted to develop a tool to visualise different classes of geographically annotated Internet data, e.g., topology, address allocation, DNS and economical data. more»

Global Patterns in IPv4 Allocation Statistics

In January 2007 we highlighted that the IPv4 allocation rate had increased significantly since early 2004. By 2006 it was clear that continued growth would see IPv4 exhaustion occur sometime between 2010 and 2015. In October 2010 we revisited the subject in the CircleID articled 'Graph Shows Decline of IPv4 Almost Linear'. ... Now, in January 2011, we are very close to the exhaustion of the IANA pool of IPv4 address space. more»

Uptake of IPv6 in All Regions

Our recent cooperation with the OECD on IPv6 deployment inspired us to provide more IPv6 deployment statistics to a wider audience - from network operators to national governments. The result is an infographic that shows the percentage of networks or Autonomous Systems that announce one or more IPv6 prefixes in the global routing table. This metric shows how many networks have actually deployed IPv6 in a country or group of countries. more»

How Accurate is the Routing Registry?

The Internet Routing Registry (IRR) is a globally distributed routing information database that consists of several databases run by various organisations. Network operators use the IRR to publish their routing policies and routing announcements in a way that allows other network operators to make use of the data. In addition to making Internet topology visible, the IRR is used by network operators to look up peering agreements, determine optimal policies and to configure their routers. more»

The Trouble With 6to4

In the transition from IPv4 to IPv6, the preferred solution for network endpoints is to have both native IPv4 and IPv6 connectivity (also called dual-stack connectivity). If a site cannot get native IPv6 connectivity, however, the IPv4 network endpoints can choose from a number of conversion technologies to connect to the IPv6 Internet. The most commonly used conversion mechanisms are 6to4, Teredo and tunnel-brokers. At recent RIPE meetings there have been claims that 6to4 connectivity is quite often broken. We were interested to find out how broken it really is. more»

How Complete is the RIPE Routing Registry?

The Internet Routing Registry (IRR) is a globally distributed routing information database. The IRR consists of several databases run by various organisations in which network operators can publish their routing policies and their routing announcements in a way that allows other network operators to make use of the data. In addition to making Internet topology visible, the IRR is used by network operators to look up peering agreements, determine optimal policies and, more recently, to configure their routers. more»

AS Path Lengths Over Time - How Interconnected is the Internet?

One way to determine the denseness of the Internet, or its "interconnectedness", is to look at the path length between Autonomous Systems (ASes). The "shortest AS path" is a route selection rule in the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) that means traffic from one AS will chose the path with the least number of ASes to get to the receiving AS. With IPv6 being deployed in parts of the Internet, we looked at the AS path length to see if the IPv6 portion of the Internet is more or less interconnected than the IPv4 Internet. more»

Graph Shows Decline of IPv4 Has Been Mostly Linear

As the free pool of IPv4 addresses reaches its end, we looked at the evolution of the amount of unassigned IPv4 address space over time. By 'unassigned', we mean address space not yet allocated to a Local Internet Registry (LIR) or assigned to an end user. LIRs are typically Internet Service Providers or enterprises operating an IP network. See our findings in the graph below... more»

A Look at Nine Years of RIPE Database Objects: IPv6 Objects on the Rise

The RIPE Database is about to enter its fourth decade. It began humbly as a place to store network and contact information back when the RIPE community formed in 1989. When the RIPE Network Coordination Centre (NCC) was created three years later and started to assign and allocated IP address space, the database was expanded to include the registration of more detailed network and routing information. more»

Topic Interests

Regional RegistriesIP AddressingIPv6Registry ServicesDNSInternet ProtocolSecurityTelecomAccess ProvidersBroadbandTop-Level DomainsDNS Security

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Popular Posts

Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 Performance

The Trouble With 6to4

Uptake of IPv6 in All Regions

Graph Shows Decline of IPv4 Has Been Mostly Linear

How Many IPv4 Addresses Does the RIPE NCC Have Left?